Printers and Linux used to be a real pain, since the emerge of Linux, until quite recently. Nowadays mainstream devices are supported well.
From a distance it is very difficult to evaluate what your problem is exactly. I have the same printer like you have, or at least a variant from the same series. I can’t remember going through all that effort of downloading software etc. That used to be the case in the past, and could be notorious difficult.
Since you mentioned CUPS and ppd, seems you have at least some background knowledge, experience and technical interest. I can only give you one advice: use VirtualBox.
If your system has at least 2GB of memory, you can install Lubuntu 22.04.2 again (on your system) as a Virtual Machine (VM). My choice would be to install Oracle VirtualBox for creating and running VMs.
It is user friendly and not too demanding on your system or your experience. In fact it can be quite an experience and fun to work with. It might broaden your horizon on all the Linux OSes out there, once you get the hang of it. But first…solve your printer problem
You’ll have to create a new Lubuntu 22.04.2 system from an ISO, go through the usual install process…and you will have a fresh system at your disposal, inside your laptop or PC, unhampered. Ready to replay what you’ve been experiencing with your printer on your main system so far. Or do other things to get the printer running.
Before you try something you can and should make a snapshot of the fresh baseline of the VM. If needed, you can go back to that quickly. Without the lengthy process of reinstalling the VM from the ISO.
The trick which publishes the printer to the VM (as if you plugged in the USB cable) is to forward that USB connection from the host system to the VM (via the Devices menu of the VM). After that the VM “sees” the printer.
After you’ve found out how to install the printer properly (inside the VM), it might help you to do the same on the host system (your hardware).
Perhaps you 'll need to install the VirtualBox Extension Pack (on your host system) and the Guest Additions (on the VM).
If you need any help with VirtualBox, please let us know.